环球教育在线测试系统

托福阅读长难句的层次化处理

2017-11-09编辑: 长安来自: 环球教育

  在托福阅读的教学过程中,有90%的同学认为托福考试词汇难,句子既长又复杂。因此考试当中很容易出现三种情况:第一,做不完题。第二,都做完了,但是第三篇几乎是稀里糊涂的,没怎么来及看原文。第三,阅读考试中的三篇文章都看完了,题也做完了,但是每道题都看得云里雾里,尤其是事实信息和修辞目的题皆马马虎虎。

  在每年的托福考试当中,有绝大多数考生因为对于阅读文章中大量的复杂长难句理解较吃力,从而导致阅读分数不高,尤其在句子简化题上颇为明显。鉴于这些问题,环球教育任丽丽老师将从简单句、非简单句、倒装句和强调句四个方面来给出一些方法和建议,并结合适当练习。

  1.简单句

  1.1骨(5种基本句型)

  1)主+谓 The sun rises.

  2)主+系动词+表语

  I am a boy.

  3)主+谓+宾 I love you.

  4)主+谓+间接宾语+直接宾语

  Farmers brought their sheep、cows、pigs、vegetables、cider、and other products to the townspeople.

  5)主+谓+宾+宾语补足语

  Market days saw the crowded city even more crowded.

  Tips:

  1.2肉(非主干修饰成分)

  1)定语-前置处理

  A)前置定语:adj + n、n + n

  B)后置定语:

  n+形容词短语(adj+prep+pron\n):a dress suitable for you \ Rose

  表语形容词:a cat alive\an woman alone(alike ; awake…)

  介词短语(n+prep):the knowledge of physics of heat

  现在分词短语 (V-ing):a person singing in the room

  过去分词短语 (V-ed):a person graduated from Beijing University

  不定式(to do)a way to solve the problem

  Tips:现在分词功能:主动、进行;过去分词功能:被动、完成;不定式功能:将来

  2)同位语&插入语----跳过处理

  同位语:A、B

  A such as\including…

  A or B

  A of B:the city of Beijing(or 和 of 两边是同一事物表同位;不同事物表修饰)

  插入语:A--B--CA、B、CA (B) C

  3)状语----隔离处理

  名词:We increased the production of steel last year.

  副词:I love you deeply.

  介词短语:In the room、there are two girls.

  形容词短语:Unable to reach behind the glass and touch the strangely

  familiar face、we filled in all that we did not know with all that we could imagine.

  现在分词短语:Walking on the road、she keeps thinking about the joke.

  过去分词短语:Graduated from the Beijing University、he felt proud about himself.

  不定式:To solve the problem、you must clear up your mind first.

  独立主格:(with) \without +逻辑主语+ adj\V-ed\V-ing\to do\prep 短语\adv\n

  (Tips:非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语是句子主干的主语) (Tips:独立主格作状语时,核心名词是所发出动作或所承受状态的主体)

  独立主格 eg:

  Without a word spoken、he left the house.

  With the floor wet、we stayed outside.

  With winter coming、the weather gets colder and colder. \Transaction being processed、please wait. We divided the work、with he to clean the windows and I to sweep the floor.

  With gun in hand、the man entered the forest.

  With lunch over、he left the house.

  With a stick his weapon、武松 fought the tiger.独立主格作状语

  2.非简单句

  2.1并列(并列复合:连词)

  fanboys:for、and、nor、but、or、yet、so:;--

  while; whereas; whereby; both...and; either...or; neither…nor; not only...but also...; not…until…

  2.2嵌套(主从复合:关联词)

  骨类:主 宾 表,直接进入从句阅读

  肉类:定 状 同位,主句信息完整的情况下再读从句

  1)主语从句 (引导词不能省略) That\whether\when\where\why +句子(完整句)+ V What+句子(非完整句)+ V

  That Rose is seraphic is a well-known fact.

  Whether Rose is divorced yet is not known.\ requires questioning.

  What Jack said is true.

  2)宾语从句 (引导词不建议省略)

  I wonder if we can get there on time.

  3)表语从句 (引导词不能省略)

  The problem is when we can get a pay rise.

  He has become what he wanted to be ten years ago.

  总结宾语\表语从句: S+ V.t.\系动词 + that\if\whether\when\where\why… + 句子(完整句) +what(=anything that) + 句子(非完整句)

  4)定语从句 A. 关系代词:

  that、which、who、whom、whose

  其中 that、which、who、whom 在从句中做主语(不可省)或宾语(可省),引导的是非完整句; whose 在从句中做定语(不可省),引导的是完整句

  This is the girl who is my sister.who 在从句中做主语

  This is the book which gives me comfort at night.  which 在从句中做主语

  I give you a book(that \which) I bought yesterday (that \which) 在从句中做宾语

  This is the girl (whom) I love.whom 在从句中做宾语

  This is the table (whose owner is 俞敏洪.)whose 在从句中做定语

  B.关系副词:

  when、where、why 在从句中做状语(不可省)、引导的是完整句

  This is the day when(=on which) I get married.

  This is the place where (=in which) I get married.

  This is the reason why (=of which) I love you.

  关系副词引导的定语从句和状语从句的区别:

  I saw my dad cooking when I got home.

  This is the day when(=on which) I get married.

  Where there is a will、there is a way.

  This is the place where(=in which) I get married.

  C.介词+关系代词: in which、on which… 此关系代词中不包括 what

  5)同位语从句 (引导词不能省略)

  抽象名词常常作先行词 theory、fact、opinion、assumption、hypothesis…

  定语从句:n+ that +非完整句

  The fact that is uesd by scientists to support their theory is true.

  同位语从句:n+ that +完整句

  The fact that J.W.Bush is stupid is true.

  6)状语从句 (引导词不能省略)

  共9种:地点、时间、原因、目的、方式、比较、条件、让步、结果

  总结非简单句的处理过程:

  1)找谓语动词 = 简单句的数量

  2)判断非简单句中的句间关系:并列或嵌套

  3)层次化理解

  划句子成分练习:(EXAMPLE)

  1.The deserts 主语、(定从 which 主语 already occupy 谓语 approximately a fourth of the Earth's surface 宾语)、have in recent decades been increasing 谓语 at an alarming pace 状语.

  占据了地球表面积四分之一的沙漠在近十几年来以一种令人警惕的速率在增长。

  2.The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened

  theater.

  电影院的播放技术从最初的西洋镜形式演变为将影像投影到幽暗的影院屏幕,这一转变使得

  电影院大众化消费成为可能。

  3.It appeared that (Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families

  (that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution).)

  本句可被拆分为三个分句:

  Sth appeared.

  Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families

  The trend toward smaller families had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution.

  一件事出现了,即加拿大再次落入到一种趋向于小型家庭的趋势,这种小型家庭自从工业革命以来在整个西方世界一直发生。

  4.The history of clinical nutrition、or the study of the relationship between health and how the body takes in and utilizes food substances、can be divided into four distinct eras: the first began in the nineteenth century and extended into the early twentieth century when it was recognized for the first time that [food contained constituents (that were essential for human function)] and that [different foods provided different amounts of these essential agents.]

  (That A and that B were recognized for the first time…)

  本句可被拆分为5个分句:

  1) The history of clinical nutrition、or the study of the relationship between health and how the body takes in and utilizes food substances、can be divided into four distinct eras

  2) the first began in the nineteenth century and extended into the early twentieth century

  3)when it was recognized for the first time

  4)that food contained constituents (6 that were essential for human function)

  5)and that( different foods provided different amounts of these essential agents)

  临床营养学的历史(临床营养学换言之就是指健康和身体如何吸收利用食物的关系的研究)

  可以被分为四个明显的阶段:第一个阶段开始于19世纪,并且延伸到20世纪早期,在20世纪早期,人们第一次认识到了两件事情:1.食物包含对人体机能来说必要的成分;2.不同的食物包含的这些核心成分的含量是不同的。

  5.The fact that (artisans 手工匠,技工、(who were  被看做 looked on as mechanics 技工 or skilled workers 熟练工种 in the eighteenth century) are frequently 频繁 considered artists today) is directly 归因于 attributable to the Arts and Crafts 手工艺品 Movement 运动 of the nineteenth century.

  本句可被拆分为三个分句:

  The fact is directly attributable to the Arts and Crafts Movement of the nineteenth century.

  artisans are frequently considered artists today

  artisans were looked on as mechanics or skilled workers in the eighteenth century

  依次翻译为:

  一个事实直接归因于19世纪的AC运动,这个事实即手工匠们被频繁地看做是今天的艺术家,而这些手工匠们在18世纪只是被看做技工或熟练工种。

  3.倒装句

  1)部分倒装处理:把提前的助动词/be 动词/情态动词去掉或还原;按顺序理解(do;did;does 去掉,其他还原)----语法要求(一种规定)

  Little do I know about him. Never will I marry you.

  I (do) know little about him. I will never marry you.

  Only in this way can we achieve a sustainable development and harmonious society.

  2)完全倒装处理----语义要求(避免头重脚轻)

  ※构成主语的成分:

  名词;代词;The +形容词;不定式;主语从句;动名词;数词

  ※完全倒装的判断流程

  (V-ing:是动名词可以作主语;V-ing:是现在分词不可以作主语)

  Playing basketball is fun.Playing basketball is James.

  TIPS:如何判断一个句子为完全倒装:

  判断谓语动词之前的成分是否可以做主语、如果不可以做主语、则该句是完全倒装。

  如果主语位置上是Ving,则需判断其是现在分词还是动名词,若是现在分词,则该句是完全倒装。

  例1:Herein lay || the beginning of || what ultimately turned from ignorance to denial || of the value of nutrition therapies in medicine.

  此句关键意思为:Herein lies the keys to the questions. 这里面包含着问题的答案。

  例2:Surrounding the column || are three sepals and three petals、|| sometimes easily recognizable|| as such||、often distorted into || gorgeous、weird、but always functional shapes.

  围绕着雌蕊的是三个萼片和三个花瓣,这些萼片和花瓣有时候被轻易认出来,但经常变形成

  美丽,奇怪但又总是具备功能的形状。

  例3:Basic to || any understanding of Canada || in the 20 years || after the Second World War || is the country's impressive population growth.

  句子结构: adj + prep +B+ be + A = A + be +adj +prep +B

  提取句子抽象结构:Basic to B(any understanding of the disadvantages of building a large factory near a community) is A(the air pollution)=A is basic to B.

  要想了解加拿大在二战之后 20 年的发展,首先要了解这个国家惊人的人口增长。

  例4:Most important perhaps、|| was that they had all maintained || (with a certain fidelity) ||a

  manner  of  technique  and  composition  ||consistent  with  those  of  America's  first  popular landscapes artist、||Thomas Cole、||who built a career ||painting the Catskill Mountain scenery ||

  bordering the Hudson River.

  句型结构:S + Vt + prep + n1 (介词短语做状语)+ n2 (Vt 的宾语是 n2)

  一件事是很重要的,即他们以一种忠诚维持着一系列的方法和构图形式,这种方法和构图形

  式和美国最早期的风景画艺术家是相一致的,这个艺术家是 TC,他创建了一种职业,这种职业是以画 C 山风景为生,C 山坐落在 H 河畔。

  例5:Accustomed though || we are to || speaking of the films || made before 1927 as "silent"、the film has never been||、in the full sense of the word、|| silent.

  = Though we are Accustomed to speaking of the films made before 1927 as "silent"、the film has never been、in the full sense of the word、silent.

  尽管我们习惯于说 1927 年之前拍摄的电影都是无声的,但是电影,从这个词本身的完全的意义上讲,从来没有无声过。

  句型结构:adj + though + S + be + prep + n = though + S +be + adj + prep + n、仅发生在让步状语从句中.

  4.强调句

  构成:It + be + 强调成分+that/ who+ 其他成分

  tips:把强调结构去掉句子仍然完整且正确的是强调句强调句不强调 adj 和 v

  例1:It was ||just a decade before this|| that many drug companies had found ||their vitamin sales skyrocketing|| and were quick to supply practicing physicians ||with generous samples of vitamins and literature ||extolling the virtue of supplementation ||for a variety of health-related conditions.

  正是这件事发生的十年之前,很多医药公司发现他们的维他命销售呈直线上升形式,因此很快提供给临床内科医生大量的维他命的样本和参考文献,这些参考文献赞扬了针对于很多健康相关的状况的补给物的优点。

  例2:It was|| she、a Baltimore printer、||who published the first official copies of the Declaration,||the first copies ||that included the names of its signers ||and therefore heralded the support of all thirteen colonies.

  正是她,一个巴尔迪莫的印刷商,出版了独立宣言的第一版官方版本,这个第一个版本包含了所有签署者的名字,因此预示了所有 13 个殖民地的支持。

  例3:It was || in the cities || that || the elements ||that can be associated with modern capitalism || first appeared-----the use of money and commercial paper in place of barter、|| open competition in place of social deference and hierarchy,|| with an attendant rise in social disorder、 || and  the  appearance  of  factories  ||using  coal  or  water  power  || in  place  of  independent craftspeople || working with hand tools.

  正是在城市中,这些和现代资本主义相联系的元素第一次出现了,这些元素----金钱和商业货币的运用取代了物物交换,公开的竞争取代了社会的顺从和等级制度,伴随着社会动荡的加剧,用煤和水能的工厂的出现取代了用手工工具的独立的手工作坊。

  总而言之,在阅读的过程中,我们要学会去次留主,去粗取精。同时,定期做一些长难句不回读训练,运用scanning和skim的阅读方法逐渐提高阅读速度,以此来增加题目的正确率。

预约雅思/托福水平在线测试
获取0元体验课程

  • 2018雅思听力
  • 2018雅思口语
  • 2018雅思写作
  • 2018雅思阅读
  • 雅思备考指南